Industrial water softening is a process that utilizes ion exchange resins to reduce the concentration of calcium and magnesium ions. These alkaline earth metals can cause scaling and insolubility problems in the everyday uses of water by forming calcium and magnesium carbonate scales.
Typically, a Strong Acid Cation (SAC) resin is used and regenerated with sodium chloride (brine). In cases of high TDS water or high hardness levels, the SAC resin is sometimes preceded by a Weak Acid Cation (WAC) resin.
In cases where the water has high iron levels, high chlorine levels or is high temperature softening is accomplished with a macroporous type SAC resin or SST