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Resin and Media Filtration
AFM®– Activated Glass Filter Media
AFM® Activated Filter Media is a direct replacement for sand, doubling the performance of sand filters without the need of additional investments in infrastructure. AFM® resists biofouling, biocoagulation and transient wormhole channeling of unfiltered water and never needs to be recharged or replaced.
AFM® is a highly engineered product manufactured from a specific glass type, processed to obtain the optimum particle size and shape. It is then exposed to a 3-step activation process to increase its surface area by up to 300 times for superior mechanical and electro-static filtration performance.
The activated surface of AFM® is self-sterilizing which prevents bacteria mud-balling, coagulation and channeling of unfiltered water through the filter bed. Activation increases the surface area by up to 300 times for catalysis and adsorption reactions. Similar to activated carbon, the surface nano-structure adsorbs pollutants from the water but unlike carbon, AFM® is recharged by just back-washing with water.
Granular Activated Carbon Media
Activated Carbon is a natural material rich in carbon whereby the pores of the charred material have been opened, increasing the carbons surface area, through a steam or chemical activation process. The common carbon-rich sources used for the manufacturing of Activated Carbon are coal, wood and coconut shells. Activated Carbon is characterised by its high porosity and absorptive capabilities. Through adsorption, Activated Carbon can effectively remove a range of contaminants and impurities from liquid and air streams.
DMI 65 Iron Removal Media
DMI-65 is a revolutionary Infusion Technology catalytic filtration media designed for the removal of iron and manganese without the use of potassium permanganate. The unique micro-porous structure of DMI-65 efficiently removes dissolved iron to as low as 0.001 ppm and manganese to 0.001 ppm. The DMI-65 acts as an oxidation catalyst with immediate oxidation and filtration of the insoluble precipitates. The media has been used extensively in a wide variety of applications for over 30 years.
BIRM Iron Removal Media
Birm® is an efficient and economical media for the reduction of dissolved iron and manganese compounds from raw water supplies. It may be used in either gravity fed or pressurized water treatment systems. Birm® acts as an insoluble catalyst to enhance the reaction between dissolved oxygen (D.O.) and the iron compounds. In ground waters the dissolved iron is usually in the ferrous bicarbonate state due to the excess of free carbon dioxide and is not filterable. Birm®, acting as a catalyst between the oxygen and the soluble iron compounds, enhances the oxidation reaction of Fe++ to Fe+++ and produces ferric hydroxide which precipitates and may be easily filtered. The physical characteristics of Birm® provide an excellent filter media which is easily cleaned by back-washing to remove the precipitant. Birm® is not consumed in the iron removal operation and therefore offers a tremendous economic advantage over many other iron removal methods.
Calcite pH Correction
Calcite is a naturally occurring calcium carbonate media. One of the advantages of Calcite is its self-limiting property. When properly applied, it corrects pH only enough to reach a non-corrosive equilibrium. It does not over-correct under normal conditions. Upon contact with Calcite, acidic waters slowly dissolve the calcium carbonate to raise the pH which reduces the potential leaching of copper, lead and other metals found in typical plumbing systems. Periodic back-washing will prevent packing, reclassify the bed and maintain high service rates. Depending on pH, water chemistry and service flow, the Calcite bed will have to be periodically replenished as the Calcite is depleted. As the Calcite’s calcium carbonate neutralizes the water, it will increase hardness and a softener may become necessary after the neutralizing filter. Calcite can be effectively combined with Clack Corosex to combine the high flow neutralization properties of Corosex, along with the slower reacting low flow properties of Calcite, increasing the ability to correct low pH.
Industrial water softening is a process that utilizes ion exchange resins to reduce the concentration of calcium and magnesium ions. These alkaline earth metals can cause scaling and insolubility problems in the everyday uses of water by forming calcium and magnesium carbonate scales.
Typically, a Strong Acid Cation (SAC) resin is used and regenerated with sodium chloride (brine). In cases of high TDS water or high hardness levels, the SAC resin is sometimes preceded by a Weak Acid Cation (WAC) resin.
In cases where the water has high iron levels, high chlorine levels or is high temperature softening is accomplished with a macroporous type SAC resin or SST
Nitrate Removal Resin
Nitrate in drinking water is a global issue, and it is a regulated contaminant by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency as well as the World Health Organization. Ion exchange technology is an effective solution to treat water systems and help municipalities, manufacturers and other industry professionals comply with regulations.
The use of nitrogen fertilizer such as ammonia or anhydrous ammonium nitrate is a common practice in the agricultural industry. Rainwater and crop irrigation dissolves the nitrogen compounds enabling them to permeate the ground and provide nutrients to crops. Unfortunately, the nitrogen compounds not absorbed by the plants eventually travel into water sources as runoff in the form of nitrates. The contamination then infiltrates water sources that feed community drinking systems. If not removed from the water supplies, nitrate can have detrimental effects on human health, and young infants are particularly susceptible.
In addition to the use of fertilizers in agriculture, high nitrate levels can be symptomatic of other contaminants in the water—both natural and man-made.
Ion exchange is a preferred choice for groundwater and municipal nitrate removal as waste volume can be significantly lower than other treatment technologies, such as Reverse Osmosis.
Water chemistry, system design and intended use for the final water are critical factors to consider when choosing resin for nitrate removal but nitrate selective Strong Base Anion (SBA) resin is highly effective for retraining nitrate ions.